Maritime Human Factors Research Papers

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Maritime Human Factors Research Areas Diagram. (2007)|
Reflective Journals: Gaining insights into the effectiveness of maritime training. (2006)|
Non-technical Skills: the vital ingredient in world maritime technology. (2006)|
The Janus Principle in Maritime Safety: Looking Backwards to Look Forward. (2006)|
Barriers to Progress or Windows of Opportunity? A Study in Career Path Mapping in the Maritime Industries. (2006)  |
Shipboard Manning: Alternative Structures For The Future? (2005)|
Searching for the Root Causes of Maritime Casualties - Individual Competence or Organisational Culture? (2005)|
Using simulation to determine a framework for the objective assessment of competence in maritime crisis management. (2005)|
Content and Context: Understanding the Complexities of Human Behaviour in Ship Operation. (2005)|
Encouraging Attitude, Behaviour and Cognitive Change in Ships' Officers: As Simple as ABC? (2005)|
Recent Developments in Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Crisis Management Training. (2004)   |
Risk Management training: the development of simulator-based scenarios from the analysis of recent maritime accidents. (2004)|
A Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource Management. (2003)|
Shipboard Crisis Management: A Case Study. (2002)  |

Are Current Risk Management Strategies within the Commercial Shipping Industry Adequate? (1999)| 

 Can Cognitive Science Improve the Training of Industrial Process Operators? (1999)|

 

Barnett, M.L. (2007) Human Factors Research Areas Diagram.

 

A diagram outlining the main maritime human factors research areas and their relationships.

Pekcan, C.H., Gatfield, D.I. & Barnett, M.L. (2006). Reflective Journals: Gaining insights into the effectiveness of maritime training. In: Proceedings of the GlobalMET 2006 Conference, Singapore: Singapore Polytechnic.

 

It has always been a challenge to evaluate the effectiveness of maritime education and training due to the difficulty in gaining access to the students once they have finished their training and returned to sea. The research team at Warsash Maritime Academy has elected to meet this challenge by developing a novel approach to evaluation, which it is hoped will enable not only the course team to gain an insight into the effectiveness of its crew resource management (CRM) training, but will also provide evidence to the customer of the effectiveness of the training, and enable students to assess for themselves their strengths and weaknesses.

This novel approach is based upon the application of reflective practice. Accordingly this paper describes the reasoning behind the choice of approach and discusses preliminary findings from the research. The paper starts with an exploration of the levels of learning that are feasible in a five-day residential course wherein reference is made to contemporary thinking on teaching practice and student engagement. It then goes on to discuss the methodology being used to try and discriminate the levels of learning achieved by two cohorts of students who have attended the CRM course. This methodology is being used with the intention of evaluating effectiveness of such training and at the same time promoting reflection on practice by the students concerned. Finally the paper discusses whether reflection on professional practice during a training course, and afterwards in the operational environment, adds value to the student’s learning experience and benefits their professional development.

Barnett, M.L., Gatfield, D.I., & Pekcan, C.H. (2006). Non-technical skills: the vital ingredient in world maritime technology? In: Proceedings of the International Conference on World Maritime Technology, London: Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology.

 

This paper opens with a review of recent accident analyses and case studies to highlight the importance of non-technical skills in contributing to maritime casualties. The paper provides an overview of recent innovative developments in simulator-based non-technical skills training and assessment, through which the following issues are addressed:

  • What are the non-technical skills of resource management?
  • Which pedagogical theories underpin the development of these skills?
  • Which instructional techniques are appropriate to the development of non-technical skills?
  • How may the effectiveness of such training be evaluated?

Gatfield D.I., Pekcan, C.H., & Barnett, M.L. (2006). The Janus Principle in Maritime Safety: Looking Backwards to Look Forward. In: Proceedings of the Learning from Marine Incidents 3 Conference. London: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

 

The significance of human error in commercial shipping operations is now universally recognised. This paper opens with a summary of our current understanding of human error and accident causation.  The paper provides a review of recent accident analyses and five case studies to highlight the importance of human and organisational factors in contributing to maritime casualties. The paper concludes with the results of some preliminary research, based on observations of trainees during simulator-based exercises, which explores certain social interaction behaviours in team working. Such behaviours may be responsible for the kind of poor team performance often implicated in maritime accidents.
 

Barnett, M.L., Gatfield, D.I., Overgaard, B., Pekcan, C.H., & Graveson, A. (2006). Barriers to Progress or Windows of Opportunity? A Study in Career Path Mapping in the Maritime Industries. World Maritime University Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2006, Vol. 5 (In press)

 
The objective of the study was to provide, through a series of interviews with key personnel from a range of European Member States, an overview of the following:
  • Possible and actual career paths of seafarers;
  • Seafarer manpower requirements at sea and in relevant shore-based maritime sectors;
  •  Barriers to the mobility of qualified seafarers between the sectors.
    From this information a set of career maps were constructed for each Member State. This paper describes the methodology adopted and the findings. Similarities included the personal qualities required by seafarers, their reasons for career moves, and the processes involved. There are also a number of common factors that are markedly different in each Member State, including the culture of the individual country. The paper concludes with a comparison between these factors and known dimensions of culture.

Barnett, M.L., Stevenson, C.J., and Lang, D. (2005). Shipboard Manning: Alternative Structures For The Future? World Maritime University Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2005, Vol. 4, No.1, 5–33

 
This paper reports the results of the first phase of a research project to explore alternative shipboard manning structures. A review was conducted of relevant literature and a research study was conducted that involved the use of an electronic Delphi discussion group of maritime experts. Focus groups identified a series of feasible manning structures and these scenarios formed the basis for the electronic Delphi. The paper provides a full analysis of the exercise. One major conclusion of the participants was that, although technically feasible, unmanned vessels were unlikely to appear in the foreseeable future for commercial and political reasons. The majority favoured a human presence on board but there were significant differences of opinion on its main function and how that presence should be organised.
 
 

Barnett, M.L. (2005). Searching for the Root Causes of Maritime Casualties - Individual Competence or Organisational Culture?

World Maritime University Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2005, Vol. 4, No.2, 131–145

 
This paper opens by placing our current understanding of human error within a model of accident causation. The philosophical problems of bias and hindsight in accident investigation are discussed and a classification of human error types is presented. Two recent surveys of accident data and three case studies are used to highlight the main concerns in the sources of failure. These concerns are onboard violations, lack of onboard situational awareness, and failures in management practice. The paper provides an overview of how these issues have led to developments in maritime training and research.
 
 

Gatfield, D.I. (2005). Using simulation to determine a framework for the objective assessment of competence in maritime crisis management. In: Proceedings of the Society for the Advancement of Games and Simulations in Education and Training 2005 Conference. Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth.

 

A lack of competence in crisis management has been shown to be a causal factor in a number of recent maritime accidents. In safety critical industries other than commercial shipping, such as civil aviation, nuclear and petrochemical, research is being undertaken to identify behavioural markers that can be used to assess competence in crisis management. Although there is now a general acceptance of the core concepts for the non-technical or resource management skills required for competence in crisis management, there is also an acceptance that the behaviours associated with these skills are context specific. This paper gives details of a research programme that is working to improve the understanding of how a behavioural marker system could be used as a framework to objectively assess the competence in crisis management of merchant marine engineering officers within the context of a merchant vessel engine control room.

 

Pekcan, C.H., Gatfield, D.I. & Barnett, M.L. (2005) Content and Context: Understanding the Complexities of Human Behaviour in Ship Operation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors in Ship Operations Conference. London: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

 

The maritime training establishment at Warsash Maritime Centre is moving toward the delivery of novel courses that concentrate on non-technical or human behavioural aspects of ship operations. This paper describes the philosophical underpinnings and the evidence-based process upon which one such course, being run at the Centre, was developed. The authors explain how and why the course is designed for the specific development of social and cognitive skills or ‘crew resource management skills’ in ships’ officers. The paper concludes with an outline of future research that will consider how the training context, full-mission simulator or desktop scenario, in which the social and cognitive skills of the ships’ officers are exercised, influences the successful development of these non-technical skills.

Pekcan, C.H. (2005). Encouraging Attitude, Behaviour and Cognitive Change in Ships' Officers: As Simple as ABC? In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Engine Room Simulators. Portoroz: University of Ljubljana.

 
The primary aim of teaching is to enable students to learn [1]. This is a truism whether we are talking about students studying for degrees or about engineers participating in engine resource management courses. Another less obvious point that educational researchers make is that students’ learning happens as a result of what the student does rather than what the teacher does [2]. We might be surprised to learn therefore, that in simulated environments at least, simulator instructors often learn more than the students do [3]. On the full mission simulator courses run at Warsash Maritime Centre, a team of researchers and lecturers is working together to ensure three things: (a) that students learn and learn the types of attitudes, behaviours and cognitions that have deep significance for their effectiveness on board ship; (b) that the course lecturers concentrate more on what the students do and less on what they do by designing learning sessions that get the students engaged; and (c) that the students learn more than the lecturers do through observation of, reflection on, and critical analysis of, their own behaviour. Accordingly, this paper describes the philosophical underpinnings and the behavioural change process upon which the delivery of these novel courses depends, and without which it would not be possible to achieve the three objectives described above. In the course of this exposition, particular attention is paid to explaining the Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence (ABC) mechanism of learning by which the adoption of the new behaviours is encouraged and transferred to the shipboard environment. Furthermore the author explains why development of technical competence in shiphandling or engine management, while still important, is no longer the primary learning objective of these courses and why the emphasis is on developing the skills of communication, team co-ordination, leadership, situational awareness, and critical thinking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of simulator based resource management courses to foster behaviour change beyond the usual ‘honeymoon phase’ of any training intervention and outlines a new process being trialled by Warsash’s Maritime Research Centre to overcome some of these limitations.
 

Barnett, M.L., Pekcan, C.H., & Gatfield, D.I. (2004). Recent Developments in Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Crisis Management Training. In: Proceedings of the 2nd LSM Manning and Training in China Conference. London: Lloyds List Events.

 

This paper opens with an introduction to Crew Resource Management and how it has developed within the maritime industry. The skills required for effective CRM and crisis management are then discussed. The paper then goes on to discuss the most effective ways of training CRM skills and how competence in these skills and the management of crises can be assessed. Factors that affect the success of Crew Resource Management are proposed.

Barnett, M.L. (2004). Risk Management training: the development of simulator-based scenarios from the analysis of recent maritime accidents. In: Proceedings of the Advances in International Maritime Research Conference, Tasmania: IAMU.

 
This paper reviews several case studies to highlight some of the current risk management issues raised by recent maritime casualties. It provides an overview of how these issues have led to research-led developments in simulator-based maritime risk management training and assessment. One development is the design of effective training courses through a better understanding of the nature of the skill requirements.
 

Barnett, M.L., Gatfield, D.I., & Pekcan, C.H. (2003). A Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource Management. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Team Resource Management in the 21st Century. Daytona Beach, Florida: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

 

This paper opens with a brief introduction to the development of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in the international shipping industry, a concept that was first advanced through the use of simulators in maritime training colleges over 25 years ago. The paper charts the development of the shipping industry’s approach to the preparation of bridge and engine room teams for normal and abnormal operations, and critiques the current training regime in resource management. Two case studies are presented to highlight some of the CRM issues raised by recent maritime casualties, and the paper then proceeds to set out a research agenda for exploring some of these issues. The paper provides an overview of three research initiatives: the first is to gain a better theoretical understanding of the nature of shared situational awareness and mental models in "real world" maritime operations. A second initiative is to identify a set of behavioural markers for assessing the non-technical skills of crisis management. The third initiative is to explore the role of organisational factors in safe operation, in recognition of the limitations of operator training as a panacea to prevent the re-occurrence of accidents.

Barnett, M.L., Gatfield, D.I., & Habberley, J. (2002). Shipboard Crisis Management: A Case Study. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors in Ship Design and Operation Conference. London: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

 

The loss of the "Green Lily" in 1997 is used as a case study to highlight the characteristics of escalating crises. As in similar safety critical industries, these situations are unpredictable events that may require co-ordinated but flexible and creative responses from individuals and teams working in stressful conditions. Fundamental skill requirements for crisis management are situational awareness and decision making. This paper reviews the naturalistic decision making (NDM) model for insights into the nature of these skills and considers the optimal training regimes to cultivate them. The paper concludes with a review of the issues regarding the assessment of crisis management skills and current research into the determination of behavioural markers for measuring competence.

Gatfield, D.I., (1999). Are Current Risk Management Strategies within the Commercial Shipping Industry Adequate? In: Proceedings of the Learning from Marine Incidents Conference. London: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

 

Commercial shipping is a high-risk industry and as such should be actively engaged in the management of risk in order to reduce the number of incidents which both threaten the safety of seafarers and the protection of the environment. The high number of incidents within the commercial shipping industry raises the question of the adequacy of current risk management strategies within the industry. This paper discusses these strategies and relates them to current risk management practices in order to propose possibilities for their improvement.

Gatfield, D.I., (1999). Can Cognitive Science Improve the Training of Industrial Process Operators? Journal of Safety Research, Pergamon, Vol. 30, No.2, 133-142

 

The work tasks of industrial process operators can have far reaching implications

for both the safety of personnel and protection of the environment. The training of these operators to be competent in their work tasks, therefore, attains a high level of importance. The control of industrial processes often requires operators to undertake complex dynamic tasks. Cognitive science is attempting to explain the cognitive processes that underlie the behaviour of operators when carrying out these tasks. This paper will investigate the current theories concerning these cognitive processes and will discuss their implications toward the training of industrial process operators.

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