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The Effective Crew Project publications

Read the Effective Crew Project executive summary

Read the Effective Crew Project final report

The Effective Crew Project, led by Solent University, examines the benefits and challenges associated with the implementation of either a stable or a fluid crewing strategy on board merchant vessels. This three year project started in April 2017 and is kindly sponsored by the Lloyds Register Foundation and the TK Foundation.

The Effective Crew research develops findings from a pilot study conducted by the same research team and will draw upon best practice from stakeholders within the maritime industry. Data will also be examined from other industries to compare best practice and draw on lessons learnt for the maritime industry to improve safety, welfare and efficiency at sea.

InterManager Dispatch Magazine

An article was recently published in InterManager Dispatch magazine highlighting the importance of questioning crewing strategies.

Read the article 

Project objectives

  • Examine the impact on safety and efficiency of implementing stable or fluid crewing strategies within the Merchant Navy.
  • Provide new data in an area where the current information is primarily anecdotal.
  • Share best practice from other industries which apply stable and fluid teams.
  • Develop a best practice guide on crewing assignment for the shipping industry.
  • Develop recommendations for those in the shipping industry instrumental to crew assignment.
  • Produce high impact dissemination of the research findings.

The project will ultimately highlight the benefits and limitations of implementing either a fluid or a stable crewing strategy. Drawing on the research findings and best practice from other industries, recommendations will be made on the optimum implementation of these crewing strategies, for the merchant shipping industry.

Further information

The merchant shipping industry is constantly seeking to balance different elements of the crewing equation:

  • Safety - increasing evidence of the impact of the human element in safety.
  • Cost - crewing is commonly the largest element in vessel operating budget.
  • Efficiency - the drive to demonstrate increasing cost-effectiveness in a competitive marketplace.

One of the areas impacting on this equation is how crew are allocated to vessels and how long a senior team works together on the same vessel. Does maintaining a consistent senior team deliver benefits in safety, efficiency and cost?

In the merchant shipping industry there are companies operating a stable crewing strategy where the same senior officers (top four) operate on a back-to-back basis and return to the same vessel for several trips, with all four joining and leaving the vessel at the same time. Other companies operate a fluid system where senior officers are assigned to any appropriate vessel and will sail with different senior officers every trip.

Little literature exists regarding the benefits and challenges of these strategies within the shipping industry. Captain Kuba Szymanski, General Secretary of InterManager says:

We in the shipping industry are full of great examples, but majority of them are all anecdotal and what we are missing is good, hard scientific research which would form a basis for actions.

Evidence from other industries including healthcare, aviation and professional sports suggests the benefits of maintaining stable teams include: improved safety; building team identity; sharing skills; improved efficiency, motivation and morale. These could be of significant value to the shipping industry, particularly regarding safety performance and seafarers’ welfare.

Contact us

For further information about the project, please contact:

Dr Kate Pike:
Emma Broadhurst:
Telephone: +44 (0)23 8201 6780

The Effective Crew Project team (l-r): Karen Passman, Chris Wincott, Kate Pike, Richard Neale, Nickie Butt, Emma Broadhurst

Media and press releases

  • Anon., 2018. Research team works towards safer and more cost-effective crewing. Ship Management International, 18 September.
  • Anon., 2018. Solent University leads project to examine best manning strategies. Safety4Sea, 18 September.
  • Wincott, C., 2018. Are We Making Sound Business Decisions? Dispatch, April/March, 14-15. Available here.
  • Linington, A., 2017. Researchers to further investigate pros and cons of different crewing practices. Nautilus Telegraph, 21 July.
  • Anon., 2017. Researchers look into optimum crew policy. Nautilus Telegraph, 2 June.
  • Solent University, 2017. Crew efficiency project awarded £175k funding, in: Official Solent University [online], 26 May. Available here.

Project dissemination

22 May 2018: CrewConnect Europe, KNect365 Maritime, Hamburg, Germany

Karen Passman and Emma Broadhurst present the Effective Crew Project at CrewConnect Europe 2018

9 and 10 May 2018: Lloyd's Register Foundation International Conference. Lloyd's Register Foundation, London, UK.

3 May 2018: Research, Innovation and Enterprise Conference, Solent University, Southampton, UK.

7 November 2017: CrewConnect Global, KNect 365 Maritime, Manila, Philippines.

Dr Kate Pike at Crew Connect in November 2017

7 June 2017: International Conference on Maritime Policy, Technology and Education. Hosted by Solent University and Shanghai Maritime University in Southampton, UK.

3 May 2017: Research and Innovation Conference. Solent University, Southampton, UK.

Featured mentions:

Future activities

The end of project conference to disseminate all the research findings to a cross industry audience will take place at the IMO’s Headquarters on Thursday 31 January 2019.  The audience will also include multiple key industry stakeholders and 12 cadets from the Warsash School of Maritime Science and Engineering, whose attendance is generously supported by the TK Foundation, and kindly organised by Kuba Szymanski. Several panel discussions are planned during the event with a focus on the key research findings and audience participation in the debates and discussion.

For further information about the conference please contact Emma Broadhurst at

Current activities

Preparations are being made for Dr Kate Pike's and Chris Wincott's presentation at Crew Connect Global in Manila on Tuesday 6 November.

The team continues to work on the industry case studies and data analysis from the interview with maritime stakeholders. The findings will form part of the final project report and recommendations to the industry.

Past activities

October was a busy month for the team, with the research presented at two UK conferences. On Tuesday 16 October, Kate Pike discussed some of the key findings from the project at the Intermanager AGM. This was followed by the ACI's 23rd Maritime HR and Crew Management Summit on Thursday 25 October, where Chris Wincott also spoke about the benefits and challenges of stable and fluid crewing strategies.

World Maritime Day
On Thursday 27 September, team members Kate Pike and Emma Broadhurst visited the IMO headquarters in London in celebration of World Maritime Day.

CrewConnect Europe
Team members, Karen Passman and Emma Broadhurst presented at CrewConnect Europe on 22 and 23 May 2018. Initial research findings were shared with the global audience, as well as an update on the research project's progress and future activities. The team would like to thank the conference organisers, KNect365 for the opportunity to present.

Lloyd's Register Foundation (LRF) International Conference
Team Members attended the LRF International Conference on 9 and 10 May 2018. The team would like to thank Lloyd's Register Foundation for inviting them to attend the conference. The theme of this year's conference was 'Bringing Safety to Life'. The team submitted an informative poster about their research so far.

Emma Broadhurst and Richard Neale at the Lloyds Register Foundation Conference

Solent University's Research, Innovation and Enterprise Conference
The team presented an interactive session at Solent University's annual Research, Innovation and Enterprise Conference on 3 May. This session demonstrated how teams work differently together over time through a series of entertaining, interactive activities with the audience.

Participants in the Effective Crew activities at the Solent 2018 Research, Innovation and Enterprise Conference

Preparation for Solent University's Research, Innovation and Enterprise Conference
The team recently held a run-through of the interactive session we'll be running at Solent's annual Research and Innovation Conference, with the help of several student volunteers.

The effective crew team preparing for Solent's Research and Innovation Conference

Dispatch magazine
An article inspired by the project was featured in March/April's edition of InterManager's Dispatch magazine.

Data collection
The first phase of data collection through an online survey is now complete. The survey was specifically aimed at seafarers, insurers, recruiters, ship managers and owners.

London International Shipping Week
Team members attended two events held as part of London International Shipping Week in September 2017. The events provided the team with the opportunity to inform and engage with maritime stakeholders and raise awareness of the project.

CrewConnect Global
In November project members Dr Kate Pike and Chris Wincott presented for the second time at CrewConnect Global in Manila. The international audience was told about the project’s progress and invited to participate in the research.

Related reading

BUSHE, G.R. and A. CHU, 2011. Fluid teams: solutions to the problems of unstable team membership. Organizational dynamics, 40(3), 181-188

COROVIC, B., and P. DJUROVIC, 2013. Research of Marine Accidents through the Prism of Human Factors. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, 25 (4) pp. 369-377

EDMONDSON, A.C., 2003. Speaking Up in the Operating Room: How Team Leaders Promote Learning in Interdisciplinary Action Teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419-1452

FISHER, S.G., T.A. HUNTER and W. MACROSSON, 1998. The structure of Belbin's team roles. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71(3), 283-288

GLASSOP, L., 2002. The organizational benefit of teams. Human Relations, 55(2), 225-249

HUCKMAN, R.S., B.R. STAATS and D.M. UPTON, 2009. Team familiarity, role experience, and performance: Evidence from Indian software services. Management science, 55(1), 85-100

KATZ, R., 1982. The effects of group longevity on project communication and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, , 81-104

SOARES, C.G., and A.P TEIXEIRA, 2001. Risk assessment in maritime transportation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 74 (3) pp299-309

TUCKMAN, B.W., 1965. Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological bulletin, 63(6), 384

WALTERS, D., and N. BAILEY, 2013. Lives in Peril Profit or Safety in the Global Maritime Industry?. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian   

WEGNER, D.M., 1987. Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis of the group mind. Theories of group behavior. Springer, pp.185-208


The International Maritime Organisation have recently published a video reflecting on their history as they celebrate their 70th birthday. Watch the full video: 


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